Gluten refers to the protein found in the wheat endosperm such as e.g. wheat, rye and barley. It is composed of two different proteins: gliadin (a prolamin protein) and glutenin (a glutelin protein). The gliadin is responsible for the autoimmune response.

Lactose is a sugar found in milk and milk products. The small intestine—the organ where most food digestion and nutrient absorption takes place—produces an enzyme called lactase. Lactase breaks down lactose into two simpler forms of sugar: glucose and galactose. Lactose intolerance is caused by a deficiency of lactase.

Lupin is a legume belonging to the same plant family as peanuts. Various lupine seeds are toxic in nature because they contain bitter toxins. There is a variety called sweet lupine that is eatable and that can replace flour and pasta in in many Mediterranean countries and South America. For a long time we eat these seeds as starchy as well as snacks. Lupine seed flour, meanwhile, has seen its use increase since the 1990s because of its nutritional and technological qualities. Lupin can give allergies especially in people allergic to peanuts. You have to know that it is used as a good substitute in free gluten products.

A peanut or nuts allergy is a reaction that occurs when your body mistakenly identifies nuts as harmful substances. When you eat nuts in general or food containing nuts, your immune system overreacts and releases chemicals, including histamine, into your blood in order to destroy the enemies. That can cause a serious response. You have to know that the nuts are dried fruit and are in form of a shell. It is mainly the almonds, hazelnuts, walnuts, brazil, cashew, coconut, macadamia, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios and chestnuts.

Hen egg is made of a non-allergic shell, egg white represents 56 to 61% from its total and egg yolk represents 27 to 32%. It is the egg white which is the major source of allergy because it is made up of 23 proteins whose named Gallus domesticus allergen or Gal d. Egg yolk has meanwhile Gal d 5 (alpha-livetin) that is involved in a cross-reaction between egg and bird.

Casein is one of the main proteins found in milk and dairy products. Therefore it can also be found in lactose free food. Casein allergy occurs when the body’s immune system perceives casein as a foreign substance and produces symptoms that affect the skin, the respiratory system and the digestive system. It is an allergy which is found more often in infants when introducing the milk into their diet.

Sulfites are chemical compounds containing sulfite ion from sulfur. These are substances which are present in nature. They are used by man as preservatives, added to some foods for their antioxidant properties, and some drugs for their antiseptic properties. They are found mainly in fish, shellfish, nuts as well as drinks especially in white wines and champagne. We speak of intolerance to sulfites because it is often a non-specific inflammatory reaction related to the activation of innate immunity following exposure of the cells to sulfites. Symptoms usually appear within half an hour after the ingestion of food or drinks containing sulfites.

Celery is a plant variety in the family Apiaceae also called Umbelliferae. It is from the same family as carrots, fennel, dill, parsley, anise, cumin, coriander and chervil. There are three types of celery that are commonly grown: the celery, celeriac and celery leave. It is commonly used as a vegetable and can be found in various forms in food, such as powder, seeds or salt. Allergy to celery seems to be linked to people with seasonal hay fever to birch and mugwort pollen. This is called cross-reaction and is often an important cause of food allergies.

Sesame is an oilseed crop whose seed is consumed. It is used worldwide in bakery, in the Middle Eastern pastries, in the exotic cuisine and in vegetarian food. It is consumed as seeds. It can be prepared as a paste called tahini or can be extracted into oil. If you are allergic, your immune system overreacts and releases chemicals, including histamine, into your blood in order to destroy the enemy. The release of these chemicals causes the allergic reaction.

Mustard allergy is an allergy to mustard seeds which are used to make condiment mustard that can be found in many foods, sauces and beverages. You may know that mustard is part of the family of turnips, broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, The allergy is caused by proteins presented in mustard. The body perceives these proteins as harmful and reacts against it. The result is an allergic reaction.

Fish contains certain proteins to which we may be allergic. Therefore, we have to avoid tinned fish such as tuna, salmon, cod, anchovies and many others. When you eat fish, your immune system overreacts and releases chemicals, including histamine, into the bloodstream to destroy the enemy. This can cause a serious reaction.

There are two kinds of shellfish, each containing different proteins:

On the one hand we have the crustaceans which include crabs, lobster, crayfish, shrimp and prawn.

On the other hand we have the mollusks which include squid, snails, octopus, clams, oysters and scallops, mussels.

Your immune system identifies a certain shellfish protein as harmful, triggering the production of antibodies to the shellfish protein. The next time you come in contact with the allergen, your immune system releases histamine and other chemicals that cause allergic symptoms.

Within the shellfish family, it is the crustacean group that causes the greatest number of allergic reactions.

Although people who are allergic to one kind of shellfish can or not be allergic to the other kind. Another thing that you have to know is the fact that a shellfish allergy is different from an allergy to fish. Someone who is allergic to shellfish can or not be allergic to fish and the reverse.

Soybeans are a member of the legume family. It is present in many food. A soy allergy occurs when the body’s immune system mistakes the harmless proteins found in soy for invaders and creates antibodies against them. The next time a soy product is consumed, the immune system will go release chemicals such as histamines to “protect” the body. The release of these chemicals is what causes an allergic reaction.